Your browser currently has javascript disabled. Enabling it will give you access to the advanced features of this site, such as synchronized transcripts, videos, and photo galleries. Here's how to do it.


On page 176 I wrote that an American U-2 spyplane that strayed inadvertently into Soviet airspace on September 4, 1962, was shot down. That is incorrect. An American spyplane inadvertently strayed into Soviet airspace over Sakhalin Island to the north of Japan on August 30 but was not shot down. President Kennedy first heard about the incident on September 4 after the Soviets protested the intrusion. For more on this U-2 incident and President Kennedy’s reaction on hearing of it, see Timothy Naftali and Philip Zelikow, eds., The Presidential Recordings: John F. Kennedy: The Great Crises, volume 2: September-October 21, 1962 (New York: W.W. Norton, 2001) pp. 4-18. On September 9, a Taiwanese U-2 was shot down over mainland China.